Ink dating….and the CSI effect
Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
What is a Forensic Document Examiner
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Someone trying to sell a baseball allegedly signed by Babe Ruth in the early s, or pass off documents as older than they really are, is up against a serious foe: The United States Secret Service. You might know that the Secret Service is on guard against counterfeit currency. You might not know, however, that it also keeps a one-of-a-kind International Ink Library with more than 11, specific writing ink fingerprints on hand.
The ink library handles a variety of cases, from threat letters — the Secret Service protects not only the President but also other high-profile government officials — and ransom letters, baseballs, and phony documents where someone is “trying to obscure the truth in some way,” says Joseph Stephens, ink library document analyst. Want to cover up insider trading by adding information to a stock worksheet after the fact? Then you should have used the same exact pen as the original, since the FBI and the Secret Service have teamed up to crack those kinds of cases simply through ink analysis.
Anytime you write something down, it’s more than your handwriting that can give you away. This library was created in the late s at the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms until it grew and moved to the Secret Service and its Washington, D. It contains inks dating to the s, pens Secret Service agents collected on worldwide travels, and annually updated samples solicited from ink manufacturers.
With all this data, the Secret Service can do what’s called static ink dating to support a variety of criminal investigations. With static ink dating, analysts can determine when an ink was first made available to the public, says Julia Barker, ink library document analyst. This is the most common type of investigative request the library receives.
Forensic Document Examination
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type. Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers.
The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as.
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Advances in the forensic analysis and dating of writing ink
Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory.
Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to generate dating models for inks aged with exposure to light. Evaluation using an external test set found.
There’s more to a piece of paper than meets the eye – and paper analysis can find it. This specialized investigative process extracts historical and physical evidence from documents, photographs, art prints, books, and other paper-based objects. These tools are used, alone or in combination, to characterize the properties of paper in a number of ways. For example, a qualitative analysis shows what materials are in the paper, fiber, ink; quantitative analysis measures how much.
Chemical analysis evaluates composition and pH; physical analysis measures gloss, strength, color. Organic analysis detects carbon-based traces of plants and organisms; while inorganic analysis identifies mineral evidence in pigment and ink. Each of these approaches provides a set of facts about an artifact’s condition, age or origins. The method of choice for any given situation is determined by several factors, including: the objectives of the investigator authentication, preservation, personal curiosity ; the relative value of the paper historically, legally, personally ; and whether the information gained from destructive testing will outweigh the loss of material samples.
Ink Chromatography and Forensics STEM Kit
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well as expert witness testimony on these and related issues. You may limit your search for Ink Dating expert witnesses to a specific area by selecting a state from the drop down box.
Featured Experts. Document examinations are provided in the following areas: handwriting, typewriter, photocopies,
Ink analysis can play an important role in the forensic investigation of such cases. Modern writing inks are complex mixtures consisting of multiple dyes or.
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.
The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis. All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question.
PAPER FORENSICS & AGE DATING
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
two samples of ink. Identifying ink formulas as to their manufacturer or time of manufacture as well as performing ink dating examinations are beyond the.
Have questions? Give us a call IPS Testing is able to determine likely age ranges for paper products by using wood fibers, pulping chemistry, paper additives and surface treatments to serve as dating markers. Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics.
While exact age dating of papers is not possible, the process is often able to exclude samples as being made in the time period of question. Walter Rantanen has developed a large database of paper with known ages. He has also worked closely with Paul Messier and the Museum of Modern Art to develop a similar database for photographic papers.
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic. Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed.
In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written.
information to the forensic document examiner. The estimation of the date when the writing ink was placed on the paper using a calibration.
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:. Writing ink sequencing — Examining intersections areas where two or more pen lines cross to determine the order of writing it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time. Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.
Offset marks — When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing and printing may be transferred from one to another. When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of the cases where forensic document examination can be applied, the techniques and technologies used, and standards that exist in the field. In , an intruder broke into the home of an elderly couple living in California. The couple was robbed, beaten, and forced to write checks from their personal account before being murdered. The suspect denied having anything to do with the murders.
He claimed the checks were payment for landscaping work he had done for the couple two weeks earlier. While detectives were able to link the suspect to the crime scene using DNA evidence, they still had questions about the checks the suspect attempted to cash.
Documents Produced with Liquid Ink Jet Technology. Page date, the chemical name, concentration with lot numbers if known and affix a safety sticker.
Forensic document examiners are an essential part of the success of the forensic science community. Their main responsibility is examining written, typed, or printed documents using a scientific methodology and equipment. Their essential responsibilities go beyond evaluating different documents. They prepare demonstrative exhibits, write expert reports, and state their opinions regarding the documents which are being analyzed.
This means they testify in court proceedings if the case goes to trial. Forensic document examiners can be found in local, state, and federal crime laboratories. Federal and State Laboratories offer training to select individuals in the analysis, comparison, and evaluation of questioned documents.
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Keywords direct analysis in real time, forensic science, ink, ink identification, mass spectrometry, characterizing features with which to identify or date inks .
This may be due to aging, illness, injury,emotional changes or many other causes. For this reason examples that were created within two or three years of the questioned document are best for comparison. There can never be too many documents for comparison. There can be too few. Use of objective techniques rather than subjective techniques is valuable for determining when a document was written. In a case involving whether a questioned signature was made by the person whose name was signed, I determined the person did sign the letter.
By using quantitative techniques I determined the letter was signed recently rather than several years earlier according to the date on the letter. This implied the letter was drafted to fabricate evidence in the case. When the opposing side was presented with the evidence they immediately settled the case. The age of documents may also be determined by examination of the paper, ink, toner and other attributes of the document.
Some of these examinations require engaging specialists such as ink chemists, paper experts and others. Learn the Age of Documents. Q9 Consulting.